近日,方真研究员应 “生物燃料,生物制品和生物炼制”(他担任该刊顾问编委) 邀请,为该刊关于生物能源技术发展撰写社论。方真研究员建议设计并找到一种新的廉价和绿色的溶剂,在温和的条件下,溶解木质纤维素生物质,在均相的条件下进行生物炼制。

全球每年生物质生产量相当于8倍的世界能源消耗。大部分生物质是以木质纤维素的形式存在,含有75%的单糖(例如,木材和草:50%的纤维素和25%半纤维素)。问题的关键是如何释放这些丰富的生物聚合物成为水溶性糖,它们可很容易随后再转化为乙醇,脂类,其他生物燃料,各种化学品,食品和药品。

通常,有三种典型的方法水解木质纤维素为可发酵糖:(ⅰ)预处理后,在低温下酶解(例如,50摄氏度);(ⅱ)在温和的温度下催化水解(例如,180摄氏度),和(iii)在高温近临界点下,快速水解(如350摄氏度)。溶解生物质以形成均相“生物质溶液”对于水解和预处理是非常重要的。溶解后的“生物质溶液”可像液态石油(而不是固体煤)一样,很容易加工,并可实际用于流动反应装置来提高生产效率。有机溶剂(例如,γ戊内酯,γ-valerolactone),离子液体和超临界流体均可以溶解生物质来水解。

生物质溶解后,这三种水解方法可以进一步改进以提高实际用途:(ⅰ)酶水解:酶,水和生物质分子可在一个均相条件下完全水解,不需要预处理步骤。然而,应考虑在工业生产中,如何回收酶,保持其较高的活性和降低成本。 (ii)催化水解:水解过程可用于流动反应装置以提高生产效率。与此同时,固体催化剂可替代液体酸,这样更绿色和环保。然而,固体催化剂的稳定性和活性需要进一步研究。 (iii)快速水解技术:尽管其效率高,但是,由于水解条件苛刻(如高温高压),工程问题(如反应器设计,材料和连续操作)等将成为障碍其商业化的关键。

1、Zhen Fang*, How Can We Best Solubilize Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis? Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining, 9, 621–622 (2015) (invited editorial).

 

Solubilization of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis

 

By Jing-Mei Chen

 

Recently, Prof. Zhen Fang was invited to write an Editorial in “Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining” (He is also serving as advisory editorial board member for this Journal). He suggested to design and find a green and inexpensive solvent to solubilize lignocellulosic biomass at mild conditions for novel biorefineries.

Annual global biomass production is equivalent to 8 times the world’s energy consumption. Most of biomass is in lignocellulosic form that contains 75% sugar units (e.g., wood and grass plants: 50% cellulose and 25% hemi-cellulose). The key is how to release these abundant biopolymers to become water-soluble sugars that are easily subsequently converted into ethanol, lipids, other bio-fuels, various chemicals, foods, and medicines. There are three typical methods to hydrolyze lignocelluloses to sugars.

Typically, the three ways are used for hydrolysis: (i) enzymatic hydrolysis after pretreatment at low temperatures (e.g., 50 oC), (ii) catalytic hydrolysis at mild temperatures (e.g., 180 oC), and (iii) fast hydrolysis at high temperatures near critical point (e.g., 350 oC). It is very important to solubilize biomass to form a homogenous phase for hydrolysis and pretreatment. The homogenous biomass solution (like petroleum not solid coal) is also easily processed in a flow system for practical applications. Organic solvents (e.g., γ-valerolactone), ionic liquids and supercritical fluids can dissolve actual biomass for hydrolysis.

After biomass solubilization, the three hydrolysis methods can be further improved for practical uses: (i) for enzymatic hydrolysis; enzymes, water and biomass molecules mix well in a homogenous phase for complete hydrolysis, pretreatment step is not required. However, how to recycle enzymes, keep high activity and reduce their cost should be considered for industrial production. (ii) For catalytic hydrolysis; a flow process can be built up to increase production efficiency. At the same time, solid catalysts may replace liquid acids for a green process. However, their stability and activity need study further. (iii) For fast hydrolysis; even though its high efficiency, however, owing to severe conditions (high temperature and pressure), engineering issues (such as reactor design, materials and continuous operation) become key obstacle to commercialize it.

1、Zhen Fang*, How Can We Best Solubilize Lignocellulosic Biomass for Hydrolysis? Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining, 9, 621–622 (2015) (invited editorial).

 

image001

Cellulose completely dissolves in an ionic liquid for hydrolysis or pretreatment

纤维素完全溶解在离子液体中行水解或预处

首届云南生物质能源发展论坛暨云南省能源研究会成立三十周年大会于2015年10月24至25日在云南昆明,西南林业大学召开。来自云南省发展和改革委员会、云南省工业和信息化委员会、云南大学、云南师范大学和中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园等30多个单位的160余位专家、学者及企业界人士出席了会议。

本次论坛主题为“云南生物质能源的发展与创新”,云南省能源研究会副理事长/秘书长、材料工程学院郑志锋院长主持了开幕式,中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园方真研究员被论坛邀请主持了24日下午学术会议。张帆助理研究员以“高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺研究进展”为题目做了学术报告,向大家汇报了近年来国内外高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺的研究状况,生物能源组在生物能源领域取得的成绩以及张帆本人在高效合成生物柴油绿色工艺研究过程中获得的一些收获和近期在Applied Energy、Energy、Fuel和Bioresource Technology等国际能源期刊上发表的研究成果。感谢中科院热带植物资源可持续利用重点实验室、中科院“一三五”课题(XTBG-T02)和国家自然科学基金青年项目(No. 31400518)的鼓励和支持。

 

Prof. Zhen Fang and Mr. Fan Zhang attended “First Yunnan Biomass Energy Development Forum”

By Fan Zhang

 

The First Yunnan Biomass Energy Development Forum, or the Yunnan Provincial Energy Society 30 year Anniversary was held at Southwest Forestry University in Kunming, Yunnan on October 24-25, 2015.

More than 160 delegates from 30 governmental agencies, institutions and industries such as Yunnan Development and Reform Commission, Yunnan Provincial Industry & Information Technology Commission, Yunnan University, Yunnan Normal University and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden attended the meeting.

The theme of this forum is “the Development and Innovation of Biomass Energy in Yunnan”, the Dean of Material Engineering College, Prof. Zhifeng Zheng (deputy director/secretary general of Yunnan Energy Research Association) presided over the opening ceremony. Prof. Zhen Fang from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (CAS) was invited to preside over the academic meeting. Mr. Fan Zhang has given a talk on “Research Progress of High Efficiency Synthetic Biodiesel with Green Technology”. He introduced research status of high efficiency synthetic biodiesel with green technology in China and abroad in recent years, achievements in the field of bio-energy in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and also his recent research results published in the Applied Energy, Energy, Fuel and Bioresource Technology. His work was got financial supports from Chinese Academy of Sciences [Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use and CAS 135 program (XTBG-T02)] and the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31400518).

image001

图为首届云南生物质能源发展论坛暨云南省能源研究会成立三十周年大会现场

Recently, Springer has published a book entitled “Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources” edited by Profs. Zhen Fang, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer, Hardcover ISBN 978-94-017-7329-4, 368 pages, 2015. (http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401773294).

As a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, hydrogen has the potential to supplement or replace traditional fossil fuels in the near future. The use of renewable biomass resources for hydrogen production is receiving a lot of attention as a innovative and robust processes continue to demonstrate hydrogen production from many types of biomass substrates. The present text provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research and prospects of producing hydrogen by fermentation, electrochemical, bioelectrochemical, gasification, pyrolysis and solar techniques from many possible biomass resources.  Hydrogen separation, storage and applications are also covered.

This book contains 12 chapters contributed by leading experts in the field. The text is arranged into four key areas:

Part I: Bioconversion (Chapters 1-3)

Part II: Thermoconversion (Chapters 4-7)

Part III: Electrochemical and Solar Conversions (Chapters 8-10)

Part IV: Separations and Applications with Fuel Cells (Chapters 11-12)

This book reviews current research and prospects of producing hydrogen by bio, thermal and electrochemical methods. Hydrogen separation, storage and applications are also covered. The text should be of interest to students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the areas of energy, environmental and chemical sciences, engineering, resource development, biomass processing, sustainability and the hydrogen economy.

This book is the fifth book of the Springer series entitled, “Biofuels and Biorefineries” (Prof. Zhen Fang is serving as editor-in-Chief), and the twelfth English book published by Prof. Zhen Fang since 2009.

 

斯普林格新书《可再生资源制氢》出版

陈敬妹

由方真研究员、Richard L. Smith Jr.和Xinhua Qi教授主编的新书Production of Hydrogen from Renewable Resources,最近由斯普林格公司出版发行。(精装,368页,ISBN 978-94-017-7329-4, (http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401773294,2015)。

作为具有高能量的清洁能源载体,氢具有替代或补充传统的化石燃料的潜力。利用可再生的生物质资源生产氢气得到了极大的关注。本书回顾了最新的研究成果,以及生物、热化学和电化学方法制氢的前景,包括氢分离、存储和应用技术。该书对在能源、环境和化学科学、工程、资源开发、生物质处理、可持续性和氢经济领域感兴趣的学生、研究人员、学者和实业家有很大的参考价值。

本书包含12章,由来自世界各地该领域的顶尖专家撰写。该书包括四个关键领域:第一部分:生物转化(第1-3章);第二部分:热化学转化(第4-7章);第三部分:电化学和太阳能转换(8-10章),第四部分:分离和应用技术,与燃料电池(11-12章)。

该书是斯普林格系列丛书“生物燃料和生物炼制”( 方真研究员担任该丛书总编辑)出版的第五本专著,也是方真研究员自2009年以来,编著出版的第十二部英语专著。

image001

     

Sulfonated activated carbon acid (AC-SO3H) can catalyze both esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from oils with high acid value (AV) without pretreatment. Because, activated carbon has properties like its surface oxides, reducibility, and stability in both acidic and basic media, as well as its structural resemblance to graphite , fullerenes and nanotubes to support -SO3H group well. However, the separation of AC-SO3H catalyst needs filtration or centrifugation that is energy and time consuming. So, many magnetic carbonaceous acids were successfully prepared that are easily separated by a magnet for cellulose hydrolysis, fructose dehydration and hydrolysis of polysaccharides. But these catalysts have low acid content (e.g., 1.3, 1.95 and 0.38 mmol/g) for effective biodiesel production, some have low magnetism.

Mr. Zhang Fan, a PhD student, under the guidance of Professor Zhen Fang in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (CAS), prepared a cheap and active magnetic heterogeneous acid for the production of biodiesel from oils with high AV. First, magnetic core is formed by hydrothermal precipitation from both glucose and iron chloride and subsequent high temperature pyrolysis. The core is again hydrothermally coated with glucose and stabilized by pyrolysis, and subsequent sulfonated as acid catalyst. It was found that pyrolysis temperature at 600 °C led to excellent structure to produce catalyst with high acid density (2.79 mmol/g) and strong magnetism (14.4 Am2/kg). The catalyst presents high active, stable and recoverable in the production of Jatropha biodiesel from crude oil with high AV (17.2 mg KOH/g) with high yields for 3 cycles (90.5%, 91.8%, 90.3%), slight reduction in total acid density (2.43 vs. 2.79 mmol/g) and high catalyst recovery rate of 96.3%. It was also found that ultrasound can resist free fatty acids. High biodiesel yield (90.7%) was still achieved from high AV oil (4.8) at low US energy density (0.1 W/mL) with Na2SiO3 catalyst.

The results are published in Applied Energy and Fuel:

1. Fan Zhang, Z. Fang*, Y.T. Wang. Biodiesel production direct from high acid value oil with a novel magnetic carbonaceous acid, Applied Energy, 2015; 155: 637-647.
2. Fan Zhang, Z. Fang*, Y.T. Wang. Biodiesel production directly from oils with high acid value by magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C catalyst and ultrasound, Fuel, 2015; 150: 370–377.

新型碳基磁性固体酸催化剂用于高酸值油脂直接转化合成生物柴油

 直接用高酸值油脂制备生物柴油是一难点和研究热点。

磺化的活性炭可用于酯化和酯交换反应催化高酸值油脂制备生物柴油。因为活性炭具有类似于表面氧化物,还原剂和稳定的酸碱基团等特性,并且它的结构与石墨,富勒烯和碳纳米管相似并可以构建-SO3H酸基团。目前,已成功地研制出磁性碳基固体酸并用于磁场回收,例如分别用于纤维素水解、果糖降解和多糖水解的催化剂,但是以上催化剂较低的酸量(如:1.3, 1.95 and 0.38 mmol/g)或较弱的磁性不适用于生物柴油制备。

中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园生物能源组,博士生张帆在方真研究员的指导下,制备出一种廉价和高活性的磁性固体酸催化剂用于高酸值油脂制备生物柴油。催化剂的制备方法:首先通过葡萄糖和氯化铁混合溶液在高温水热条件下制备碳基磁核,然后利用水热碳化葡萄糖再次包埋热处理后的碳基磁核,最后通过高温热处理后进行磺化制备碳基磁性固体酸。研究发现在600 °C温度下热处理再磺化制备的固体酸,同时具有高酸量(2.79 mmol/g)和磁饱和度(14.4 Am2/kg),该催化剂具有高活性,稳定性和可回收性,循环3次用于小桐子生物柴油(生物柴油产率:90.5%,91.8%,90.3%; 小桐子油酸值17.2 mg KOH/g)制备,催化剂酸量略有下降(2.43 vs. 2.79 mmol/g)并且具有96.3%的回收率。同时,还发现,超声波能抗自由脂肪酸:以Na2SiO3为催化剂,在较低的超声波能量密度下(0.1 W/mL),高酸值小桐子油(4.8 mg KOH/g)的生物柴油产率仍然可以达到90.7%。

相关研究成果发表在国际著名能源期刊Applied Energy和Fuel上:

1. Fan Zhang, Z. Fang*, Y.T. Wang. Biodiesel production direct from high acid value oil with a novel magnetic carbonaceous acid, Applied Energy, 2015; 155: 637-647.
2. Fan Zhang, Z. Fang*, Y.T. Wang. Biodiesel production directly from oils with high acid value by magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C catalyst and ultrasound, Fuel, 2015; 150: 370–377.

新型碳基磁性固体酸催化剂用于高酸值油脂转化合成生物柴油

新型碳基磁性固体酸催化剂用于高酸值油脂转化合成生物柴油

 

Basic catalytic transesterification of oils with homogeneous [(e.g., sodium methoxide, potassium or sodium hydroxide and heterogeneous catalysts (e.g, CaO and sodium silicate) is the most common method for biodiesel production at low temperatures (e.g., 50-60 oC). However, they are easily to form soap with free fatty acids (FFAs) when low qualified oils with high acid value (AV) are used as raw materials, and two-step process composed of esterification and transesterification catalyzed over acidic and basic catalysts was developed. But, the process is too complex and costly. This work aims to directly produce biodiesel from oils with high acid value without any pretreatment using activated nanosized Mg-Al hydrotalcite.
Miss Yitong Wang (Master student), under the guidance of Professor Dr. Zhen Fang from Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (CAS), prepared Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (< 45 nm) by co-precipitation and hydrothermal activation with aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution. HT-Ca presented both acidic and basic due to the formation of Mg4Al2(OH)14.3H2O, Mg2Al(OH)7 and AlO(OH) nanocrystals to esterify and transesterify oils with high AV. Under conditions of 5 wt% HT-Ca, 160 oC, 30/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4 h, 93.4% Jatropha biodiesel yield was obtained at AV of 6.3 mg KOH/g with 4 cycles (biodiesel yield > 86%). It was further found that it can resist FFAs, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.

The results are published in Bioresource Technology:

YT Wang, Zhen Fang*, F Zhang, BJ Xue. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg–Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles, Bioresource Technology, 193, 84–89 (2015).

活化Mg-Al 水滑石纳米颗粒用于一步法催化高酸值油脂制备生物柴油

 由于中国的国情限制,用于制备生物柴油的非食用原料油酸值都比较高。这样,碱性催化剂在低温(如50摄氏度)制备生物柴油容易发生严重的皂化反应。而酸性催化剂制备生物柴油时,尽管没皂化反应,但要求较高的反应温度(如220摄氏度),对设备的质量要求也很高,同时易腐蚀设备。所以,本研究目的是制备同时具有酸碱性的催化剂可以一步法直接催化高酸值的油脂变成生物柴油。
中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园生物能源组,硕士生王一同小姐在方真研究员的指导下,成功合成了Mg-Al 水滑石纳米颗粒,将其活化后用于催化高酸值的小桐子油以及高酸值的混合大豆油制备生物柴油。实验结果表明:该纳米颗粒具有较好的抗酸性,在反应温度160 oC, 5%催化剂量,30/1醇油摩尔比和4 h 的反应时间条件下,催化酸值为6.3的小桐子油,生物柴油的产率可以达到93.4%,当催化酸值为12.1的混合大豆油制备生物柴油,产率可以达到92.9%。该纳米颗粒重复使用四次,生物柴油的产率依然可以达到86%以上。活化后的Mg-Al 水滑石纳米颗粒表现出良好的催化性能。

相关研究成果发表在国际著名能源期刊Bioresource Technology上:

YT Wang, Zhen Fang*, F Zhang, BJ Xue. One-step production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value by activated Mg–Al hydrotalcite nanoparticles, Bioresource Technology, 193, 84–89 (2015)

图为活化的Mg-Al 水滑石纳米颗粒用于小桐子生物柴油制备

图为活化的Mg-Al 水滑石纳米颗粒用于小桐子生物柴油制备

5月15日,由昆明理工大学、西南林业大学、中国科学院昆明植物研究所和中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园专家组成的答辩委员会听取了由生物能源研究组2015年硕士毕业生黄梅的论文报告和答辩。经答辩委员会讨论和无记名投票表决,一致同意黄梅同学通过学位论文答辩,建议按有关规定授予理学硕士学位。在此毕业之际,向黄梅同学表示祝贺。

Master student of biomass group passed her defense of degree dissertation in 2015

In May 15th, five experts from Kunming University of Science and Technology, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences), and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS heard the report and defense of Mei HUANG, a master student of biomass group that was expected to be graduated in 2015. After discussion and secret ballot, five dissertation committee members all agreed the thesis and defense of Mei HUANG, and suggested the academic degree evaluation committee of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS award to HUANG the master’s degree in science, according to relevant regulations. Congratulation to HUANG!

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Congratulations to Ms WU for the succesful defence her dissertation

Ms Xuehua WU, a joint training PhD student of Kunming University of Science and Technology and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences), co-supervised by Prof. Hua WANG and Prof. Zhen FANG has succesfully passed her defence of dissertation on 4th May 2015.

She has successfully defended her thesis entitled “carbon-based solid acid and magnetic solid base catalyzed in biodiesl production from Jatropha oil” while the committee suggested that Kunming University of Science and Technology to award her a doctorate degree in Engineering , according to relevant authorities and subjected to regulations.

During her PhD studies, she underwent 4 years (2011-2015) of training and carried out her research project in our biomass lab. She managed to complete four research papers and one international conference paper.

Once again, Congratulations to Ms WU.

方真 封底1

方真研究员编著的一系列生物燃料英文专著出版

方真研究员于2012年受斯普林格(Springer)科技出版集团邀请出任 Springer系列丛书 -“生物燃料和生物炼制”总编辑。他领导的编委会由生物质燃料和生物质精炼领域的美国国家工程院院士(Fellow of National Academy of Engineering)、加拿大工程院院士 (Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering)和来自日本东北大学(Tohoku University)的超临界流体方面的教授五位专家组成。该系列丛书每年出版两册,内容广泛涵盖生物质原料、生物燃料、生物制品、化学品、生物材料、食品和医药产品、能源规划和政策,以及加工技术等方面的知识和研究进展。它将为科学工作者、工程技术人员和政策制定者在科研和政策规划方面提供有效的参考。

截至发稿前,已出版的图书介绍如下:

1.《Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave》,编辑:方真, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer,精装,271页,2015

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401796118

转化生物质为化学品和生物燃料是一非常活跃的研究和开发领域,因现在的趋势是用可再生资源来代替传统化石燃料。通过把加工处理方法和微波或超声波相结合应用到生物炼制中来提高效率,可以显著地增加、过程强化以及可以实现操作时间大幅度地降低。“用微波生产生物燃料和化学品”和“用超声波生产生物燃料和化学品”是两本独立的专著,采取不同的和互补的方法进行预处理和化学转化生物质为化学品和生物燃料。

本书主要介绍微波辐射的理论和实践方面的研究现状和前景,包括微波性质、作用和温度监测;化学反应器的设计;微波、超音波、流体动力学空化和高剪切混合的协同作用;化学和催化转化木质素为化学品;热解和气化;废物生产合成气;平台化学品;藻类生物柴油;纤维素基纳米复合材料;木质纤维素预处理;绿色化学指标和能耗;以及催化热解装置处理生物质颗粒为芳烃的技术经济分析。本书是为化学和化工领域的学生、研究人员、学者和企业家特意打造的一参考资料,包括介绍性章节强调基本技术概念和它们的应用。

2.《Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound》,编辑:方真, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer,精装,358页,2015

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401796231

本书(“超音波”是上本“微波”的姐妹篇)主要介绍当前超音波技术的研究进展和前景,包括声空化在声化学中的机械原理;生物燃料合成中的物理和化学机制;酯交换和酯化反应中反应器设计;微藻生物质中提取油脂;微藻类萃取;生物柴油和生物乙醇合成;实用技术和系统;预处理生物质废物(包括木质纤维原料、粪便和污泥)生产沼气;超音波辅助制造生物质颗粒;化学-机械结合方法;淀粉基废物的利用和技术经济方法。全书12章均被同行评审和编辑以提高本书的质量、范围和主题。本书为化学和化工领域的学生、研究人员、学者和企业家特意打造的一本参考资料,包括介绍性章节强调基本技术概念和它们的应用。

3.《Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries》,编辑:方真, Chunbao (Charles) Xu, Springer,精装,474页,2014

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789401789226

这本书介绍了近临界水(NCW)和超临界水(SCW)的基本化学知识和性质;反应器的设计准则和挑战/解决方案以及它们在生物炼制应用中最新的回顾和实践,包括:生物水热炭的制备;超临界水氧化(SCWO)废弃物;超临界水气化(SCWG)生物质和废弃物生产氢气和甲烷;水热液化生物质;化学品的生产;超临界水氧化生物燃料生产能源。同时也介绍超临界水制氢的技术和经济分析。这本书对于发展新型生物炼制技术和利用近临界水和超临界水处理各种有机废弃物,以及用可再生的生物资源生产生物能源和化学品方面的研究人员和工业界人士提供了重要的参考资料。

4.《Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ionic Liquids》,编辑:方真, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer,精装,340页,2014

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9789400777101

本书阐述在未来十年内利用离子液体从生物质中生产生物燃料和化学品的应用将是一个热门的研究领域,这是由于离子液体具有多功能的和迷人的性质,能溶解木质纤维素原料。本书为读者提供了最新的基础知识、评论以及该领域目前的评估和前景,包括预处理、发酵、生物质溶解、纤维素转换、反应动力学和物理特性,以及后续生产生物燃料和平台化学物质,如糖类、醛和酸类。同时也涉及到辅助方法,如催化、微波和酶技术在生物质转换中的应用。研究者和应用人员都会在各个章节中找到大量的信息。由世界各地该领域的专家撰写的这些章节为读者提供一个怎样评估使用离子液体预处理和转换生物质的路线,并开发新的方法和化学工艺。

其他已经出版专著:

5.《Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries》,编辑:方真, Springer,精装,457页,2013

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9783642327346

这本书由世界著名的生物质预处理方法的专家参与撰写的,共19章。它包括生物质的不同类型(如糖蜜、甜菜浆、干酪乳清、甘蔗渣、废植物油、棕榈废料、稻草、秸秆和木材)和各种预处理(如物理、热、化学、物理和生物)方法用于后续生产生物燃料和化学品,如糖、乙醇、胞外多糖、生物柴油、气体和油。除了传统的预处理方法,如蒸汽、热水、水热、稀酸、有机溶剂、臭氧分解、亚硫酸盐,研磨、真菌和细菌、超声波、微波、等离子体、烘焙、制粒、气化(包括沼气)和液化方法外,还介绍和讨论了新技术,如纳米和固体催化剂、有机电解液和离子液体。这本书回顾了最新的研究进展并提供了开发生物燃料预处理技术路线指导兰图,特别是在生物技术、微生物学、化学、材料科学与工程方面领域。本书对预处理技术进行了系统的介绍,为在生物炼制方面的工作人员、学生、学者和企业家提供了一重要参考文献。

6.《Rapid Production of Micro- and Nano-particles Using Supercritical Water》,著者:方真, Springer,精装,92页,2010

http://www.springer.com/cn/book/9783642129865

这本书介绍了如何使用超临界水(SCW)合成纳米和微米氧化物、无机盐和金属颗粒近期的研究进展,以及利用超临界水沉淀法生产聚合物/生物质颗粒。这些颗粒可以用作生物质转换的催化剂、陶瓷和电子设备材料以及复合材料。颗粒很容易在一连续流动反应器中短时间内产生,也可在一批次反应器中长时间反应合成。除了合成工艺,这本书也研究了这些材料的特性。在超临界水合成中,颗粒大小、尺寸分布、晶体生长和结构以及粒子形态可以由进料浓度、pH值、压力、温度、加热和冷却速度、有机物修饰、还原或氧化环境、流量和反应时间来控制。

7.《Biodiesel – Feedstocks, Production and Applications》,编辑:方真, InTech,,精装,488页,2012

http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodiesel-feedstocks-production-and-applications

生物柴油是可再生、可生物降解、无毒和碳中性的。生物柴油应用在欧洲和美国已经商业化,它的使用在全球急剧扩大。虽然有很多关于生物柴油的书,还需要一个全面综合的教科书。这本书是全面系统地介绍生物柴油,从生产原料及其加工技术到副产品和生物柴油的综合应用。本书共17章,由世界各地的生物柴油专家撰写。章节分为4部分: 第1部分(1 – 5章)原料;第2部分(6 – 9章)生物柴油的生产方法;第3部分(10 – 13章)生物柴油副产品应用;第4部分(14 – 17章)生物柴油在发动机中的应用。这本书回顾了最新的生物柴油研究进展和应用,为生物柴油领域的学生、研究人员、科学家和技术人员提供的一本重要的参考书。

8.《Biofuels – Economy, Environment and Sustainability》,编辑:方真, InTech,,精装,386页,2013

http://www.intechopen.com/books/biofuels-economy-environment-and-sustainability

由于高油价、能源安全的需要和全球变暖问题,生物燃料获得了公众和学术界的极大关注。在生物燃料的生产及其实际应用中存在各种各样的社会、经济、环境和技术问题。这本书通过提供专业人士的观点,旨在解决这些问题。书中还涵盖了生物燃料的经济和环境影响。本文由世界各地的著名专家撰写, 共14章,内容包括生产和使用生物燃料过程中的经济、环境和可持续性。书的章节分为3部分: 第1部分(1 – 6章)原料生产的可持续性和经济性;第2部分(7-9章)生物燃料系统;第3部分(10 – 14章)生物燃料的环境分析。这本书概述了生物燃料使用中的社会、经济、环境和可持续发展的问题,为生物燃料领域的学生、研究人员、科学家和技术人员提供的一本重要的参考书。

9.《Liquid, Gaseous and Solid Biofuels – Conversion Techniques》,编辑:方真, InTech,,精装,541页,2013

http://www.intechopen.com/books/liquid-gaseous-and-solid-biofuels-conversion-techniques

生物质是一种可再生和分布于全球各地的资源,如果管理得当,可以被认为是可持续的和碳中性的。它可用各种技术被转化为高品质的气体、液体和固体生物燃料。本书介绍了生产液态和气态燃料的最新转化技术。本书共17章,由世界各地的著名专家撰写。章节分为2部分: 第1部分(1 – 12章)液体生物燃料;第2部分(13-17章)气体和其他产品的生产方法。本书概述了最新的生物燃料转化技术,为生物燃料领域的学生、研究人员、科学家和技术人员提供了一本重要的参考书。

10.《Biodiesel: Blends, Properties and Applications》,编辑:Jorge Mario Marchetti,方真, Nova,精装,293页,2011

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=21023

生物柴油(长链脂肪酸甲酯)来自可再生油脂,如植物油或动物脂肪。它可以作为替代燃料和化石柴油的添加剂。本书收集了来自世界各地的研究成果,内容包括生物柴油混合、性质和应用。讨论的主题包括生物柴油纯化方法、生物柴油在垃圾车上废气排放的研究、固体催化剂催化甘油三酯为生物柴油、生物柴油生产中废物和副产品的转化以及用阳离子交换树脂作为固体酸催化剂生产生物柴油。

11.《Complete dissolution and oxidation of organic wastes in water: Complete dissolution and oxidation of organic wastes in supercritical water》,著者:方真, VDM,平装,192页,2009

http://www.amazon.com/Complete-dissolution-oxidation-organic-wastes/dp/3639144244

这本书是关于用超临界水溶解有机废物并利用氧气均相完全氧化该废物。首先,介绍了超临界水的性质,并利用其特有的性质溶解有机物并氧化。利用一可视的微型钻石反应器(DAC)和红外显微镜对纯有机物的相平衡进行了研究。超临界水氧化实验在一更大的批次反应器进行。从DAC可视观察到:水和纤维素、萘、苯并(a)芘以及聚苯乙烯可形成均相,当加入氧气/碳酸钠时,十氯联苯可完全溶解于超临界水。均相条件被用于氧化混合的脱墨污泥废物,它由上述的纯有机物和重金属(Pb、Cr、Cd)组成。研究发现:该污泥中的所有有机物几乎可以完全氧化,同时重金属盐沉淀为水不溶性的氧化物和盐被去除。

待出版的专著:

12.《Hydrogen Production from Renewable Resources》,编辑:方真, Richard L. Smith Jr.,Xinhua Qi, Springer,精装, 2015

———————————————————

方真研究员简介:

方真  二级研究员,  博士生导师,中国农业大学生物和农业工程博士(导师:曾德超院士);加拿大麦吉尔(McGill)大学材料工程博士(导师:JA Kozinski院士)。中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园,生物能源组组长; 中国科技大学生命学院兼职教授和博导。他是快速水解技术发明人(美国专利号US patent#: 8268126, 2012),进入“2014年中国高被引学者”能源领域榜单(Elsevier-Scopus)。他担任Springer系列丛书“生物燃料和生物炼制总编辑,Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy总编辑。他是Biotechnology for Biofuels (IF 6.2,生物能源领域影响因子最高的刊物)副主编Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining (IF 4.3)顾问编委, 以及9个国际期刊的编委。 主要从事:热化学和生物化学转化生物质为生物能源和附加值高的产品。同时,研究合成纳米催化剂以促进生物质转化。

 

 

 

方真 封底2

A series of highly-downloaded books in biofuels by Prof. Zhen Fang were published

2012, Springer launched a book series entitled, “Biofuels and Biorefineries” with Professor Zhen Fang serving as Editor-in-Chief.

Professor Zhen FANG cooperates with the Editorial Board, comprising five world-leaders in biofuels and biorefineries:

Prof. Liang-shih Fan, Ohio State Univ., USA;

Prof. John R. Grace, Univ. of British Columbia, Canada;

Prof. Yonghao Ni, Univ. of New Brunswick, Canada;

Prof. Norman R. Scott, Cornell Univ., USA;

Prof. Richard L. Smith, Jr., Tohoku Univ., Japan,

for this book series.

The editorial team is committed to organize and assist authors to publish a number of biomass-related books with the highest quality that will accelerate the growth in this important area, aimed at the publication of at least two volumes per year.

The book series will be focusing on all aspect related with biomass production, biofuels, bioproducts, chemicals, biomaterials, food and pharmaceutical products, energy planning and policy, as well as processing technologies.

The book series will be the powerful and integrative source of biomass, bioenergy, biofuels, bioproducts and biorefinery for scientists, students, policy-makes and engineers to reflect the explosive growth in this interdisciplinary area.

The book series will be operating with a strict refereeing procedure to ensure that the best quality of books and chapters is published.

The selected books published were listed below:

1.Zhen Fang*, RL Smith, Jr, XH Qi (Editors), Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN 978-94-017-9611-8, hardcover, 300 pages, 2015. (5665 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/energy/renewable+and+green+energy/book/978-94-017-9611-8

Conversion of biomass into chemicals and biofuels is an active research and development area as trends move to replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources. By integrating processing methods with microwave and ultrasound irradiation into biorefineries, the time-scale of many operations can be greatly reduced while the efficiency of the reactions can be remarkably increased so that process intensification can be achieved. “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Microwave” and “Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound” are two independent volumes in the Biofuels and Biorefineries series that take different, but complementary approaches for the pretreatment and chemical transformation of biomass into chemicals and biofuels.

The volume “Microwave” provides current research advances and prospects in theoretical and practical aspects of microwave irradiation including properties, effects and temperature monitoring, design of chemical reactors, synergistic effects on combining microwave, ultrasound, hydrodynamic cavitation and high-shear mixing into processes, chemical and catalytic conversion of lignin into chemicals, pyrolysis and gasification, syngas production from wastes, platform chemicals, algal biodiesel, cellulose-based nanocomposites, lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment, green chemistry metrics and energy consumption and techno-economic analysis for a catalytic pyrolysis facility that processes pellets into aromatics. Each of the 12 chapters has been peer-reviewed and edited to improve both the quality of the text and the scope and coverage of the topics. Both volumes “Microwave” and “Ultrasound” are references designed for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering and include introductory chapters to highlight present concepts of the fundamental technologies and their application.

2.Zhen Fang*, RL Smith, Jr, XH Qi (Editors), Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ultrasound, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN 978-94-017-9623-1, hardcover, 415 pages, 2015. (3857 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/energy/renewable+and+green+energy/book/978-94-017-9623-1

The volume “Ultrasound” provides current research advances and prospects in mechanistic principles of acoustic cavitation in sonochemistry, physical and chemical mechanisms in biofuel synthesis, reactor design for transesterification and esterification reactions, lipid extraction from algal biomass, microalgae extraction, biodiesel and bioethanol synthesis, practical technologies and systems, pretreatment of biomass waste sources including lignocellulosic materials, manures and sludges for biogas production, vibration-assisted pelleting, combined chemical-mechanical methods, valorization of starch-based wastes and  techno-economic methodology.  Each of the 12 chapters has been peer-reviewed and edited to improve both the quality of the text and the scope and coverage of the topics.  Both volumes “Ultrasound” and “Microwave” are references designed for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering and include introductory chapters to highlight present concepts of the fundamental technologies and their application.

3.Zhen Fang*, C Xu (Editors), Near-critical and Supercritical Water and Their Applications for Biorefineries, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN 978-94-017-8922-6, hardcover, 490 pages, 2014. (7957 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/energy/renewable+and+green+energy/book/978-94-017-8922-6

The book provides fundamental chemistry and properties of near-critical water (NCW) and supercritical water (SCW), criteria and challenges/solutions in reactor design for NCW and SCW processes, and up-to-date reviews and practice of a wide range of their applications in bio refineries including: production of hydrochars from biomass, SCW oxidation (SCWO) for waste treatment, SCW gasification (SCWG) of biomass and waste for hydrogen and methane production, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, production of chemicals and SCWO of biofuels for energy. It also presents techno-economic analysis of hydrogen production via SCWG of biomass. The book will be highly essential for both academic researchers and industrial practitioners for developing novel bio refinery technologies and processes employing NCW or SCW for treatment of various organic waste streams and production of bio-energy and bio-based chemicals from bio-renewable resources.

4.Zhen Fang*, RL Smith, Jr, XH Qi (Editors), Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Ionic Liquids, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN 978-94-007-7710-1, hardcover, 353 pages, 2014. (Highly downloaded: 15184 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/energy/renewable+and+green+energy/book/978-94-007-7710-1

The application of ionic liquids to biomass for producing biofuels and chemicals will be one of the hot research areas during the next decade due to the fascinating properties of these versatile group of solvents that allow them to dissolve lignocellulosic materials. The present text provides up-to-date fundamentals, state-of-the-art reviews, current assessments and prospects in this area, including aspects of pretreatment, fermentation, biomass dissolution, cellulose transformation, reaction kinetics and physical properties, as well as the subsequent production of biofuels and platform chemicals such as sugars, aldehydes and acids. Auxiliary methods such as catalysis, microwave and enzymatic techniques used in the transformations are covered. Both researchers and practitioners are certain to find a wealth of information in the individual chapters, which were written by experts in the field to provide an essential basis for assessing possible pretreatment and transformation routes of biomass using ionic liquids, and for developing new methods and chemical processes.

Other books:

5.Zhen Fang* (Editor), Biofuels – Economy, Environment and Sustainability, InTech – Open Access, ISBN 978-953-51-0950-1, hardcover, 386 pages, 2013. (28591 chapter downloads for Jan 2013-April 2015).

At: http://www.intechopen.com/books/biofuels-economy-environment-and-sustainability

Biofuels are gaining public and scientific attention driven by high oil prices, the need for energy security and global warming concerns. There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues regarding biofuel production and its practical use. This book is intended to address these issues by providing viewpoints written by professionals in the field and the book also covers the economic and environmental impact of biofuels.

This text includes 14 chapters contributed by experts around world on the economy, evironment and sustainability of biofuel production and use. The chapters are categorized into 3 parts:

PART 1: Feedstocks; PART 2: Biofuels; PART 3: Environment

This book overviews social, economic, environmental and sustainable issues by the use of biofuels. It should be of interest for students, researchers, scientists and technologists in biofuels.

6.Zhen Fang* (Editor), Liquid, Gaseous and Solid Biofuels – Conversion Techniques, InTech – Open Access, ISBN 978-953-51-1050-7, hardcover, 541 pages, 2013. (41316 chapter downloads for March 2013-April 2015).

At: http://www.intechopen.com/books/liquid-gaseous-and-solid-biofuels-conversion-techniques

Biomass is a renewable, unevenly geographically distributed resource that can be considered sustainable and carbon-neutral if properly managed. It can be converted to high-qualified gaseous, liquid and solid biofuels with many techniques. This book focuses on the latest conversion techniques for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels that should be of interest to the chemical scientists and technologists.

This book includes 18 chapters contributed by experts around world on conversion techniques. The chapters are categorized into 2 parts:

PART 1: Liquids; PART 2: Gases and other products

This book offers reviews of state-of-the-art conversion techniques for biofuels. It should be of interest for students, researchers, scientists and technologists in the engineering and sciences fields.

7.Zhen Fang* (Editor), Pretreatment Techniques for Biofuels and Biorefineries, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN 978-3-642-32734-6, hardcover, 476 pages, 2013(Among the top 25% most downloaded eBooks in 2013; 25714 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/engineering/energy+technology/book/978-3-642-32734-6

This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world’s leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids.

This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries.

8.Zhen Fang* (Editor), Biodiesel – Feedstocks, Production and Applications, InTech – Open Access, ISBN 978-953-51-0910-5, hardcover, 487 pages, 2013. (41813 chapter downloads for Dec 2012-April 2015).

At: http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodiesel-feedstocks-production-and-applications

Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable, nontoxic and carbon-neutral. Biodiesel production has been commercialized in Europe and United States, and its use is expanding dramatically worldwide.  Although there are many books that focus on biodiesel, there is the need for a comprehensive text that considers development of biodiesel systems from the production of feedstocks and their processing technologies to the comprehensive applications of both by-products and biodiesel.

This book includes 17 chapters contributed by experts around world on biodiesel. The chapters are categorized into 4 parts:

PART 1: Feedstocks; PART 2: Biodiesel production; PART 3: By-product applications; PART 4: Biodiesel applications in engines

This book offers reviews of state-of-the-art research and applications on biodiesel. It should be of interest for students, researchers, scientists and technologists in biodiesel.

 9.JM Marchetti, Zhen Fang (Editors), Biodiesel: Blends, Properties and Applications (hardback). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., ISBN 13: 9781613246603 ISBN 10: 1613246609, 379 pages, Sep. 2011.

At: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=21023

Biodiesel, which consists of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from renewable lipids such as those in vegetable oils or animal fat can be used as both an alternative fuel and an additive for petroleum diesel. This book gathers research from across the globe in the study of biodiesel blends, properties and applications. Topics discussed include biodiesel purification methods; exhaust emissions study of biodiesel operated garbage trucks; the heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of triglycerides into biodiesel; valorization of wastes and by-products derived from biodiesel manufacturing and biodiesel production using cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous acid catalyst.

10.Zhen Fang* (Author), Rapid Production of Micro- and Nano-particles Using Supercritical Water, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg Berlin, ISBN: 978-3-642-12986-5, hardcover, 120 pages, August 2010. (2810 chapter downloads on April 18 2015).

At: http://www.springer.com/materials/nanotechnology/book/978-3-642-12986-5

This book shows how to use supercritical water (SCW) to synthesize nano- and micro- oxides, inorganic salts and metal particles and its recent advancement. Also polymer/biomass particles can be produced by using the method of precipitation of solutes from SCW. The particles can be used as catalysts for biomass conversions, materials in ceramics & electronic devices and composite materials. Particles are easily produced continuously in a flow reactor in short reaction times or synthesized in a batch reactor in long reaction times. Besides the synthesis process, the book also present studies of the properties of these materials. The size, size distribution, crystal growth & structure, and morphology of particles produced by supercritical water can be controlled by the feed concentrations, pH, pressures, temperatures, heating & cooling rates, organic modifications, reducing or oxidizing atmospheres, flow rates and reaction times.

11.Zhen Fang* (Author), Complete Dissolution and Oxidation of Organic Wastes in Water, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Saarbrücken, Germany, ISBN: 9783639144246, paperback, 192 pages, April 2009.

At: http://www.amazon.com/Complete-dissolution-oxidation-organic-wastes/dp/3639144244

This book is about using supercritical water (SCW) process to dissolve organic wastes, and subsequent using oxygen to completely destroy the wastes by homogeneous oxidation. First, properties of SCW were introduced, and its peculiar properties were used to dissolve organics for oxidation. Phase behavior of pure organics were studied in an optical micro- reactor diamond anvil cell (DAC) coupled with optical & FT-IR microscopes. Oxidation experiments in SCW were performed in larger batch and flow reactors for complex wastes. From the visual observations in the DAC, homogeneous phases with water were found for cellulose, naphthalene, benzo(a) pyrene and polystyrene. Complete dissolution of decachlorobiphenyl occurred only when O2/Na2CO3 was present. The homogeneous conditions were used for the oxidation of a complex De-inking sludge waste that was mainly composed of the above pure organics and heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd) in larger reactors. It was found that all organics in the sludge could be almost completely oxidized. The heavy metal salts were effectively removed by precipitation to insoluble oxides and salts with little leachability.

12.Upcoming! Zhen Fang*, RL Smith, Jr, XH Qi (Editors), Hydrogen production from renewable resources, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries, 14 Chapters, hardcover, contract-signed, Expected published in 2015.
—————————————————

Short Bio

Zhen Fang, Professor in Bioenergy; Inventor of Fast Hydrolysis Process (US patent#: 8268126); Editor-in-Chief, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries; Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. He is also adjunct full Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China.

He has background in both bioenergy (PhD, Agr. Eng. China Agr. Univ. 1991) and nanotechnology (PhD, Mat.Eng. McGill, 2003).

He has 24 years in bioenergy, more than 13 years in hydrothermal, nanotechnology and diamond anvil cell techniques of international research experiences at top universities and institutes around the world (China, Canada, Japan and Spain). He found that hot-water can completely dissolve and hydrolyze cellulose that was published in I&EC Research, and was further selected as the “95 Most-Cited I&EC Research Publications” (cites: 355 from Scopus). He invented a technique to completely dissolve and fast hydrolyze wood in hot-water that may open up a new field in refining wood solution (US patent#: 8268126). He has 174 scientific publications (papeprs in journals and conference proceedings, reports, books and book chapters) and patents, including more than 90 papers (Scopus-indexed, Scopus Author ID: 7402681505), published in the top international journals in the areas of energy and chemical engineering. The total cites are >2000 times, H index 23 for his papers. He is listed in “2014 Most Cited Chinese Researchers” in energy (Elsevier-Scopus). He wrote 3 books (2 in English), 10 book chapters, 29 papers in refereed conference proceedings and 7 reports, edited 10 books (in English), gave 32 keynote & invited lectures and 27 oral presentations & posters, and filed 27 Chinese, 3 US and 3 international PCT invention patents (19 Chinese and 1 US patents were authorized), and founded a spin-off company in New York to transfer his tech. He won Yunnan governor’s friendship award, serving as Editor-in-Chief, Springer Book Series – Biofuels and Biorefineries; Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy; associate editor, Biotechnology for Biofuels (Impact factor 6.2, Highest IF in Biofuels);and 9 editorial board members of international journals (e.g., Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining -Biofpr, IF 4.3; Energy, Sustainability and Society-a Springer open journal).

Biodiesel production by transesterification with homogeneous catalysts (e.g, sodium methoxide, sodium or potassium hydroxide) is one of the most common methods, but it is difficult to recycle due to they are dissolved in methanol and glycerol mixture. So, researchers have focused on finding suitable heterogeneous solid catalysts, such as K2CO3 supported activated carbon, CaO, Sr/MgO, MnO and TiO, to replace homogeneous liquid catalysts. However, solid base catalysts are easy to deactivate when low qualified oils with high acid value (AV) are used as raw materials due to soap formation.
Mr. Zhang Fan, a PhD student, under the guidance of Professor Zhen Fang in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (CAS), prepared cheap and active magnetic heterogeneous catalyst (Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C) for the production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value (AV) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation and magnetic stirring (MS). With the catalyst and assisted by US, soybean biodiesel yield reached > 90% in only 20 min (or at 318 K) and 97.9% under the optimal conditions. It was easily magnetically separated for 5 cycles with 94.9% recovery rate and biodiesel yield > 80% with both US and MS. The catalyst transesterified Jatropha oil with biodiesel yields of 94.7%, 93.2% and 83.5% at AV of 1.3, 4.8 and 7.3 (mg KOH/g) with US. High biodiesel yield (90.7%) was still achieved from high AV oil (4.8) at low US energy density (0.1 W/mL) and MS. The catalyst combined with US and MS can find practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV, and recovered easily for recycles.
The results are published in fuel:
F Zhang, Zhen Fang*, YT Wang, Biodiesel Production Directly from Oils with High Acid Value by Magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C Catalyst and Ultrasound, Fuel, 150, 370-377 (2015).

Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/磁性催化剂的制备及其用于超声波直接从高酸值油脂生产生物柴油

由于石化资源有限并且燃烧后二氧化碳浓度急剧升高,所以开发利用可再生的生物质燃料具有重要的价值和意义。生物柴油是一种清洁、可再生、碳中性并可替代石化柴油的液体燃料。利用均相催化剂(如:甲醇钠、氢氧化钾或氢氧化钠)通过酯交换反应制备生物柴油是最常用的方法,但是由于此类催化剂会溶解到甲醇和甘油中使得其难以循环再利用。所以研究人员一直努力寻找合适的非均相固体催化剂,例如碳载K2CO3、CaO、Sr/MgO、 MnO和TiO取代均相液体催化剂。但是碱性非均相固体催化剂由于皂化反应,不适宜用高酸值油(如废弃煎炸油、动物油脂和小桐子油)制备生物柴油。同时,与超声波辐射相比,在机械搅拌方式下,需要更长时间(如3 h)的酯交换反应制备生物柴油。
中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园生物能源组博士生张帆在方真研究员的指导下,成功合成了磁性非均相固体催化剂(Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C),并利用该固体催化剂在超声波和机械搅拌条件下用于高酸值油脂制备生物柴油。实验结果表明:在20分钟45摄氏度的超声波辅助条件下大豆油得率高于90%(最优条件下可以达到97.9%),在机械搅拌和超声波辐射协同作用时,该催化剂循环五次后生物柴油得率仍然高于80%且催化剂回收率为94.9%。利用该催化剂催化转化不同酸值(1.3、4.8 和 7.3 mg KOH/g)小桐子油,其生物柴油得率分别为94.7%、93.2% 和 83.5%,并且在较低的超声波能量密度下(0.1 W/mL),高酸值小桐子油(4.8 mg KOH/g)的生物柴油得率仍然可以达到90.7%。结合机械搅拌和超声波辅助条件,Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C可以实现高酸值原料油直接转化制备生物柴油。相关研究成果发表在国际著名能源期刊Fuel上:
F Zhang, Zhen Fang*, YT Wang, Biodiesel Production Directly from Oils with High Acid Value by Magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C Catalyst and Ultrasound, Fuel, 150, 370-377 (2015).

Graphical abstract - fan-zf

图为可磁性分离的催化剂Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C用于小桐子生物柴油制备

 
encyclopedie & Credit counseling & national guard